Ingo Valgma: Maa-aluse maailma saladused

txt: minest.ee Maa-aluse maailma saladused GIS päev Ingo Valgma Mis toimub meie jalge all? • Tunnetatav • Mittetunnetatav • Müstiline 13.11.2007 GIS päev 2 mi.ttu.ee Tunnetatav • Salvkaev aias • Kanalisatsioonikaev linnas • Tunnel kaljus • Koobas Toril 13.11.2007 GIS päev 3 mi.ttu.ee Tunnel 13.11.2007 GIS päev 4 mi.ttu.ee Müstiline • Põrgu • Plutoonia (meie maakera sees on veel teine maakera) • Käik mis ühendab Kukruse mõisa Jõhvi kirikuga • Käik mis viib Pirita kloostrist Toompea alla 13.11.2007 GIS päev 5 mi.ttu.ee Mittetunnetatav • Kanalisatsioonitorustik • Metroo • Kaevandus • Koobastik • Vulkaanilõõr • Lõhe maa sees või mere all 13.11.2007 GIS päev 6 mi.ttu.ee Maaalune, allmaa, maasisene • Kanalisatsioonikaev, luuk peal, bussijaam kaubanduskeskuse all • Kaevandus • Tori põrgu (koobas liivakivis) 13.11.2007 GIS päev 7 mi.ttu.ee Kaevandus ja karjäär • Koobastik – looduslik, st. üldjuhul mitte inimese poolt rajatud tühimikud maa all • Kaevandus = allmaakaevandus • Karjäär = pealmaakaevandus 13.11.2007 GIS päev 8 mi.ttu.ee Kaeveõõned karjääris • Kraav, kaevik, tranšee • Kaevetranšee • Veotranšee • Auk 13.11.2007 GIS päev 9 mi.ttu.ee 10 Kaevetranšee vaalkarjääris Narva karjäär mi.ttu.ee 11 mi.ttu.ee Suur auk-karjäär 13.11.2007 GIS päev 12 mi.ttu.ee Väike auk-karjäär 13.11.2007 GIS päev 13 mi.ttu.ee Kaevandus • Maavara • Kaeveõõned – Šaht ≠ kaevandus – Kamber – Stoll – Šurf – Strekk • Tervik 13.11.2007 GIS päev 14 mi.ttu.ee Strekk 13.11.2007 GIS päev 15 mi.ttu.ee 16 Estonia kaevanduse kambrid ja tervikud mi.ttu.ee Pargipink kambris 13.11.2007 GIS päev 17 mi.ttu.ee 13.11.2007 18 Kombainkaevandamine Eestis mi.ttu.ee Saladus • Mittenähtav • Mittetunnetatav • Mittetajutav • Tundmatu • Kardina tagune 13.11.2007 GIS päev 19 mi.ttu.ee Mis auk see on? 13.11.2007 GIS päev 20 mi.ttu.ee Mis urgas see on? 13.11.2007 GIS päev 21 mi.ttu.ee Mis kraav see on? 13.11.2007 GIS päev 22 mi.ttu.ee Kuhu see kraav välja viib? 13.11.2007 GIS päev 23 mi.ttu.ee Mis käik see on? 13.11.2007 GIS päev 24 mi.ttu.ee Miks raudtee kõver on? mi.ttu.ee Mis juhtus? mi.ttu.ee Kas Piusa koobas on ohtlik? 13.11.2007 GIS päev 27 mi.ttu.ee Miks see auk keset metsa on? 13.11.2007 GIS päev 28 mi.ttu.ee Kuidas on GIS seotud maaaluse maailmaga? • GIS e. ruumiline modelleerimine on ainus võimalus arusaadavalt kirjeldada maa-alust maailma 13.11.2007 GIS päev 29 mi.ttu.ee 13.11.2007 30  Oil plant Closed plant      Power plant Closed power plant          Narva Narva- Jõesuu Eesti Power Plant Slantsõ Lake Peipsi Gulf of Narva Jõhvi Sillamäe Ahtme Power Plant Kohtla- Kiviõli Järve Kohtla- Nõmme Püssi Surface mined area Underground mine Permissions are not resoluted New mine © Enno Reinsalu, 2007 Flooded mine Reservation Rakvere Kunda Mezhduretshije Põhja-Kiviõli Kirovskoje Ubja Haljala Kirovi Leningradskaja nr 4 Vanamõisa Kiviõli Estonia Ahtme nr 2 Käva Sompa Kukruse Viru Puhatu Permisküla Oandu Uus Kiviõli Ojamaa Kabala Tudu Kohala Uljaste Rakvere Sonda Peipsi Seli Pada 1 Narva Aidu Usnova Nr 3 Kohtla Tammiku Sirgala-Viivikonna 6 Põlevkivimaardla mi.ttu.ee 31 RUSSIA ESTONIA OIL SHALE BEDDING DEPTH, meters UNDERGROUND OIL SHALE MINING FIELDS CALORIFIC YIELD, SHOWS ACTIVE DEPOSIT OIL SHALE RESEARCH FIELDS MINED OUT AREAS OIL SHALE OPEN CAST FIELDS 35 GJ/m2 25 Kirov skaja IDA VIRU COUNTY Sirgala open cast Narv a open cast Permisküla GULF O F FINLAND Ahtme Peipsi Puhatu 35 GJ/m2 25 GJ/m2 Seli Viru Estonia Kohtla Ojamaa Underground oil shale mining area, abandoned mines Aidu open cast Uus Kiv iõli Oandu Kiv iõli Puhatu 30 80 70 55 60 45 65 50 40 40 35 15 20 25 30 80 35 20 15 25 10 10 mi.ttu.ee 13.11.2007 GIS päev 32 mi.ttu.ee Läbilõige 13.11.2007 GIS päev 33 mi.ttu.ee 13.11.2007 GIS päev 34 Lõiked, kivimi omadused mi.ttu.ee Kas Jõhvi vangla upub? 13.11.2007 GIS päev 35 mi.ttu.ee 13.11.2007 36 Mis on Jõhvi kõrgendiku sees? mi.ttu.ee 13.11.2007 37 Kuidas kaevandada 1 km sügavusel lasuvat rauamaaki? mi.ttu.ee 13.11.2007 38 Kuidas tasanda karjääripuistanguid? mi.ttu.ee Kuidas vasemaak (või graniit Maardust) maa seest kätte saada? 13.11.2007 GIS päev 39 mi.ttu.ee Kas vedada maa all kopplaaduri või konveieriga? 13.11.2007 GIS päev 40 mi.ttu.ee 13.11.2007 41 Kuidas allmaakaevandamine mõjutab elu rabas? mi.ttu.ee Kas Kohtla kaevandusest saab põlevkivi Aidu karjääri viia? 13.11.2007 GIS päev 42 mi.ttu.ee Kuhu rajatakse uued kaevandused? 13.11.2007 GIS päev 43 Kiviõli Estonia Ahtme Kaevandus 2 Käva 2 Kaevandus 4 Kohtla Sompa Viru Tammiku Küttejõu Puhatu Permisküla Oandu Uus Kiviõli Haljala Ojamaa Kabala Tudu Kohala Uljaste Rakvere Põhja-Kiviõli Sonda Peipsi Seli Pada Pada Estonia Estonia Slantsõ2 Slantsõ1 Aidu Narva Kohtla-Järve Vana Kohtla mi.ttu.ee 3D Tarkvara • FLAC • MINEX / SURPAC, Vulcan • Vertical Mapper, Surfer, Discover • Modflow, Plaxis • Autocad, Microstation • jne 13.11.2007 GIS päev 44 mi.ttu.ee Kivimite püsivus 13.11.2007 GIS päev 45 mi.ttu.ee 46 Model Generation: Mine Layout – Horizontal map Results mi.ttu.ee 47 FLAC3D 3.00 TU Bergakademie Freiberg Professur Bergbau/Tiefbau Step 3980 Model Perspective 16:55:40 Sun Jun 25 2006 Center: X: 7.450e+001 Y: 6.824e+001 Z: 4.914e+001 Rotation: X: 10.000 Y: 0.000 Z: 0.000 Dist: 4.568e+002 Mag.: 1 Ang.: 22.500 Job Title: Horst - Peterstollen View Title: Block Group gips mm1 anhydrit unteres sulfat mm2 mergelkalkstein mo1 mergelstein mo2 Axes Fixed Linestyle X Y Z Model Generation: Stratigraphic Sequence Results mi.ttu.ee 48 Model Generation: Transfer into the Model FLAC3D 3.00 TU Bergakademie Freiberg Professur Bergbau/Tiefbau Step 3980 Model Perspective 17:17:29 Sun Jun 25 2006 Center: X: 7.450e+001 Y: 6.350e+001 Z: 5.050e+001 Rotation: X: 90.000 Y: 0.000 Z: 0.000 Dist: 3.120e+002 Mag.: 1 Ang.: 22.500 Job Title: Horst - Peterstollen View Title: Block Group gips mm1 Axes Fixed Linestyle X Y Z Results mi.ttu.ee 49 Modellerzeugung: Block Definition FLAC3D 3.00 TU Bergakademie Freiberg Professur Bergbau/Tiefbau Settings: Model Perspective 09:35:37 Thu Jun 22 2006 Center: X: 7.450e+001 Y: 6.350e+001 Z: 5.370e+000 Rotation: X: 90.000 Y: 0.000 Z: 0.000 Dist: 3.474e+002 Mag.: 1 Ang.: 22.500 Job Title: Ralingen View Title: Block Group feste1.7 feste1.8 feste1.9 feste2.1 feste2.2 feste2.3 feste2.9 gips mm1 b1 b2 b3 b4 b5 b6 b7 b8 b9 b10 b11 b12 X Y Z Results mi.ttu.ee 50 FLAC3D 3.00 TU Bergakademie Freiberg Professur Bergbau/Tiefbau Settings: Model Perspective 14:07:54 Thu Jun 22 2006 Center: X: 7.450e+001 Y: 6.350e+001 Z: 5.370e+000 Rotation: X: 90.000 Y: 0.000 Z: 0.000 Dist: 3.474e+002 Mag.: 1 Ang.: 22.500 Job Title: Ralingen View Title: Block Group b80 b81 b82 b83 b84 b85 b86 b87 b88 b89 b91 b92 b93 b94 b95 b96 b97 b98 b99 b100 X Y Z Model Generation: Room and pillar => open stoping Results mi.ttu.ee 51 FLAC3D 3.00 TU Bergakademie Freiberg Professur Bergbau/Tiefbau Step 3980 Model Perspective 17:43:01 Sun Jun 25 2006 Center: X: 1.179e+002 Y: 7.121e+001 Z: 9.760e+000 Rotation: X: 2.598 Y: 358.906 Z: 90.550 Dist: 7.658e+002 Mag.: 18 Ang.: 22.500 Block Group gips mm1 b1 a1 a2 a3 a4 a5 a6 feste4.1 feste4.2 feste4.3 feste4.4 feste4.5 feste4.6 feste4.7 feste4.8 feste4.9 feste4.10 feste4.11 Y X Z Results Model Generation: Room and pillar => open stoping mi.ttu.ee 52 Model Generation - Animation FLAC3D 3.00 TU Bergakademie Freiberg Professur Bergbau/Tiefbau Step 3980 Model Perspective 11:26:11 Wed Jul 05 2006 Center: X: 8.747e+001 Y: 5.562e+001 Z: 2.901e+001 Rotation: X: 24.310 Y: 0.000 Z: 64.660 Dist: 2.697e+002 Mag.: 4.29 Ang.: 22.500 Job Title: R0 View Title: Contour of SMin Magfac = 1.000e+000 Gradient Calculation -1.4264e+001 to -1.4000e+001 -1.4000e+001 to -1.3000e+001 -1.3000e+001 to -1.2000e+001 -1.2000e+001 to -1.1000e+001 -1.1000e+001 to -1.0000e+001 -1.0000e+001 to -9.0000e+000 -9.0000e+000 to -8.0000e+000 -8.0000e+000 to -7.0000e+000 -7.0000e+000 to -6.0000e+000 -6.0000e+000 to -5.0000e+000 -5.0000e+000 to -4.0000e+000 -4.0000e+000 to -3.0000e+000 -3.0000e+000 to -2.0000e+000 -2.0000e+000 to -1.0000e+000 -1.0000e+000 to -5.3629e-001 Interval = 1.0e+000 Axes X Y Z Results mi.ttu.ee 53 FLAC3D 3.00 TU Bergakademie Freiberg Professur Bergbau/Tiefbau Step 4350 Model Perspective 11:26:22 Wed Jul 05 2006 Center: X: 8.747e+001 Y: 5.562e+001 Z: 2.901e+001 Rotation: X: 24.310 Y: 0.000 Z: 64.660 Dist: 2.697e+002 Mag.: 4.29 Ang.: 22.500 Job Title: R1 View Title: Contour of SMin Magfac = 1.000e+000 Gradient Calculation -1.4259e+001 to -1.4000e+001 -1.4000e+001 to -1.3000e+001 -1.3000e+001 to -1.2000e+001 -1.2000e+001 to -1.1000e+001 -1.1000e+001 to -1.0000e+001 -1.0000e+001 to -9.0000e+000 -9.0000e+000 to -8.0000e+000 -8.0000e+000 to -7.0000e+000 -7.0000e+000 to -6.0000e+000 -6.0000e+000 to -5.0000e+000 -5.0000e+000 to -4.0000e+000 -4.0000e+000 to -3.0000e+000 -3.0000e+000 to -2.0000e+000 -2.0000e+000 to -1.0000e+000 -1.0000e+000 to -3.3848e-002 Interval = 1.0e+000 Axes X Y Z Results Model Generation - Animation mi.ttu.ee 54 FLAC3D 3.00 TU Bergakademie Freiberg Professur Bergbau/Tiefbau Step 4799 Model Perspective 11:26:40 Wed Jul 05 2006 Center: X: 8.747e+001 Y: 5.562e+001 Z: 2.901e+001 Rotation: X: 24.310 Y: 0.000 Z: 64.660 Dist: 2.697e+002 Mag.: 4.29 Ang.: 22.500 Job Title: R2 View Title: Contour of SMin Magfac = 1.000e+000 Gradient Calculation -1.4228e+001 to -1.4000e+001 -1.4000e+001 to -1.3000e+001 -1.3000e+001 to -1.2000e+001 -1.2000e+001 to -1.1000e+001 -1.1000e+001 to -1.0000e+001 -1.0000e+001 to -9.0000e+000 -9.0000e+000 to -8.0000e+000 -8.0000e+000 to -7.0000e+000 -7.0000e+000 to -6.0000e+000 -6.0000e+000 to -5.0000e+000 -5.0000e+000 to -4.0000e+000 -4.0000e+000 to -3.0000e+000 -3.0000e+000 to -2.0000e+000 -2.0000e+000 to -1.0000e+000 -1.0000e+000 to -5.3657e-001 Interval = 1.0e+000 Axes X Y Z Results Model Generation - Animation mi.ttu.ee 55 FLAC3D 3.00 TU Bergakademie Freiberg Professur Bergbau/Tiefbau Step 5150 Model Perspective 11:26:49 Wed Jul 05 2006 Center: X: 8.747e+001 Y: 5.562e+001 Z: 2.901e+001 Rotation: X: 24.310 Y: 0.000 Z: 64.660 Dist: 2.697e+002 Mag.: 4.29 Ang.: 22.500 Job Title: R3 View Title: Contour of SMin Magfac = 1.000e+000 Gradient Calculation -1.4203e+001 to -1.4000e+001 -1.4000e+001 to -1.3000e+001 -1.3000e+001 to -1.2000e+001 -1.2000e+001 to -1.1000e+001 -1.1000e+001 to -1.0000e+001 -1.0000e+001 to -9.0000e+000 -9.0000e+000 to -8.0000e+000 -8.0000e+000 to -7.0000e+000 -7.0000e+000 to -6.0000e+000 -6.0000e+000 to -5.0000e+000 -5.0000e+000 to -4.0000e+000 -4.0000e+000 to -3.0000e+000 -3.0000e+000 to -2.0000e+000 -2.0000e+000 to -1.0000e+000 -1.0000e+000 to -2.2474e-001 Interval = 1.0e+000 Axes X Y Z Results Model Generation - Animation mi.ttu.ee 56 FLAC3D 3.00 TU Bergakademie Freiberg Professur Bergbau/Tiefbau Step 5581 Model Perspective 11:26:57 Wed Jul 05 2006 Center: X: 8.747e+001 Y: 5.562e+001 Z: 2.901e+001 Rotation: X: 24.310 Y: 0.000 Z: 64.660 Dist: 2.697e+002 Mag.: 4.29 Ang.: 22.500 Job Title: R4 View Title: Contour of SMin Magfac = 1.000e+000 Gradient Calculation -1.4184e+001 to -1.4000e+001 -1.4000e+001 to -1.3000e+001 -1.3000e+001 to -1.2000e+001 -1.2000e+001 to -1.1000e+001 -1.1000e+001 to -1.0000e+001 -1.0000e+001 to -9.0000e+000 -9.0000e+000 to -8.0000e+000 -8.0000e+000 to -7.0000e+000 -7.0000e+000 to -6.0000e+000 -6.0000e+000 to -5.0000e+000 -5.0000e+000 to -4.0000e+000 -4.0000e+000 to -3.0000e+000 -3.0000e+000 to -2.0000e+000 -2.0000e+000 to -1.0000e+000 -1.0000e+000 to -5.3751e-001 Interval = 1.0e+000 Axes X Y Z Results Model Generation - Animation mi.ttu.ee 57 FLAC3D 3.00 TU Bergakademie Freiberg Professur Bergbau/Tiefbau Step 5908 Model Perspective 11:27:05 Wed Jul 05 2006 Center: X: 8.747e+001 Y: 5.562e+001 Z: 2.901e+001 Rotation: X: 24.310 Y: 0.000 Z: 64.660 Dist: 2.697e+002 Mag.: 4.29 Ang.: 22.500 Job Title: R5 View Title: Contour of SMin Magfac = 1.000e+000 Gradient Calculation -1.4174e+001 to -1.4000e+001 -1.4000e+001 to -1.3000e+001 -1.3000e+001 to -1.2000e+001 -1.2000e+001 to -1.1000e+001 -1.1000e+001 to -1.0000e+001 -1.0000e+001 to -9.0000e+000 -9.0000e+000 to -8.0000e+000 -8.0000e+000 to -7.0000e+000 -7.0000e+000 to -6.0000e+000 -6.0000e+000 to -5.0000e+000 -5.0000e+000 to -4.0000e+000 -4.0000e+000 to -3.0000e+000 -3.0000e+000 to -2.0000e+000 -2.0000e+000 to -1.0000e+000 -1.0000e+000 to -2.2811e-001 Interval = 1.0e+000 Axes X Y Z Results Model Generation - Animation mi.ttu.ee 58 FLAC3D 3.00 TU Bergakademie Freiberg Professur Bergbau/Tiefbau Step 6338 Model Perspective 11:27:13 Wed Jul 05 2006 Center: X: 8.747e+001 Y: 5.562e+001 Z: 2.901e+001 Rotation: X: 24.310 Y: 0.000 Z: 64.660 Dist: 2.697e+002 Mag.: 4.29 Ang.: 22.500 Job Title: R6 View Title: Contour of SMin Magfac = 1.000e+000 Gradient Calculation -1.4167e+001 to -1.4000e+001 -1.4000e+001 to -1.3000e+001 -1.3000e+001 to -1.2000e+001 -1.2000e+001 to -1.1000e+001 -1.1000e+001 to -1.0000e+001 -1.0000e+001 to -9.0000e+000 -9.0000e+000 to -8.0000e+000 -8.0000e+000 to -7.0000e+000 -7.0000e+000 to -6.0000e+000 -6.0000e+000 to -5.0000e+000 -5.0000e+000 to -4.0000e+000 -4.0000e+000 to -3.0000e+000 -3.0000e+000 to -2.0000e+000 -2.0000e+000 to -1.0000e+000 -1.0000e+000 to -5.4064e-001 Interval = 1.0e+000 Axes X Y Z Results Model Generation - Animation mi.ttu.ee 59 FLAC3D 3.00 TU Bergakademie Freiberg Professur Bergbau/Tiefbau Step 6641 Model Perspective 11:27:25 Wed Jul 05 2006 Center: X: 8.747e+001 Y: 5.562e+001 Z: 2.901e+001 Rotation: X: 24.310 Y: 0.000 Z: 64.660 Dist: 2.697e+002 Mag.: 4.29 Ang.: 22.500 Job Title: R7 View Title: Contour of SMin Magfac = 1.000e+000 Gradient Calculation -1.4164e+001 to -1.4000e+001 -1.4000e+001 to -1.3000e+001 -1.3000e+001 to -1.2000e+001 -1.2000e+001 to -1.1000e+001 -1.1000e+001 to -1.0000e+001 -1.0000e+001 to -9.0000e+000 -9.0000e+000 to -8.0000e+000 -8.0000e+000 to -7.0000e+000 -7.0000e+000 to -6.0000e+000 -6.0000e+000 to -5.0000e+000 -5.0000e+000 to -4.0000e+000 -4.0000e+000 to -3.0000e+000 -3.0000e+000 to -2.0000e+000 -2.0000e+000 to -1.0000e+000 -1.0000e+000 to -2.2819e-001 Interval = 1.0e+000 Axes X Y Z Results Model Generation - Animation mi.ttu.ee Põleng, vajumine 13.11.2007 GIS päev 60 mi.ttu.ee mi.ttu.ee SPONTANEUS COMBUSTION mi.ttu.ee MINING SUBSIDENCE CH4 Tree Tree House Building 2 Factory Tree Tree REHABILITATION OF MINE WASTE DUMP CH4 ROCK BURST Prof. JAN PALARSKI mi.ttu.ee METHANE DRAINAGE UND UTILIZATION Prof. JAN PALARSKI mi.ttu.ee Sandstone Shale Void Mixture Pipeline FILLING OF WEBER VOID mi.ttu.ee Abb. 2.22-2 Finite Element – Method (simulation possibility) Pic.16; 2007-11-10 mi.ttu.ee Mine Subsidence Pic.24; 2007 – 11 10 mi.ttu.ee Subsidence B B A O-Line Subsidence A 0 Standard figures: Depth Thickness Subsidence 850 m 200 cm in cm Pic. 7; 2007-11-10 mi.ttu.ee mi.ttu.ee Maa-alune saladus? 13.11.2007

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